December 20, 2020

QNu Labs

To ensure safety and trusted communication in today’s connected world, random number generators are a critical security element. The strength of the security system lies in the quality source from which the entropy is derived. The characteristics of a random number generator are:

They should constantly provide true randomness,

They should not be predictable

The strength of the keys is determined by the highest degree of randomness used in its generation. This means, the higher the degree of entropy, the stronger is the key.

**Are today's random numbers weak?**

Random numbers are used as seeds for cryptosystems to generate keys. Hence, the strength of the keys depend on the randomness of the input seed.

There are generally two types of random number generators: deterministic random number generator, also called Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG) and non-deterministic random number generators, also known as True Random Number Generator (TRNG).

PRNG is a software-based algorithm which generates random numbers from deterministic source seed. The seed for the software could be a date, temperature, pressure or any deterministic input that are given to an algorithm randomising the input by using a mathematical formula.

True Random Number Generator (TRNG) uses hardware-based inputs to create random values. Here, the inputs are generally physical processes like **avalanche noise, thermal noise or atmospheric noise**. These noises are then converted into electronic signals and then into digital signals in order to generate random bits.

**PRNG and TRNG are vulnerable due to their predictability**

The outcome is predictable

They can be subsequently reproduced

In these RNG’s, the output is determined by the seed which is predictable

RNG produces the same output regardless of input; this is referred to as reused seeds

It becomes easy for hackers to guess and predict the keys

**How QRNG works?**

In cybersecurity, perfect random number is a root of trust. A QRNG does not rely on mathematical algorithms but on laws of quantum physics to ‘naturally’ generate random numbers.

A QRNG can produce unpredictable outcomes in a robust and well-controlled way. It includes the power of complex deep-tech technologies such as semiconductors, optoelectronics, high precision electronics and quantum physics that work together to create the highest level of randomness possible.

QRNGs use random properties of quantum physics to generate a true source of entropy. This improves the quality of seed for key generation. Since the entropy sources are derived from fundamental models, all the properties and behaviours are understable and provably secure.

**Benefits of having QRNG (Quantum Random Number Generation)**

The source of randomness is unpredictable and controlled by quantum process.

The entropy source tends to produce true random output.

Live/ real-time monitoring of entropy source is possible and highly effective as well.

All attacks on the entropy source are detectable.

The above factors indicate that our QRNG is provably secure.

**Applications of QRNG**

Securing data at rest in data centres

Securing any kind of sensitive data

Securing data in the cloud

One-time pad for authentication in banking and other transactions

Gaming applications and lottery

Block-chain network

Numerical simulations, statistical research

IoT Devices

E-commerce and banking applications

Cryptographic applications

Telecom and 5G