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whitepaper

Quantum Random Number Generator for Tokenization Needs

WHITEPAPER

Quantum Random Number Generator for
Tokenization Needs

Tokenization: A Single Point of Failure in Banking & Financial Services Infrastructure

Quantum Random Number Generator for Tokenization Needs

Tokens are random numbers that are used to mask the personally identifiable information (PII), be it Bank Account Details, Credit/Debit card numbers, PAN / AADHAR data, credentials (pins, passwords) and the like by replacing them with randomly generate substitutes at the time of use; Tokens are thus used for completing the transaction and themselves do not have any intrinsic value except when mapped to the PII that is stored.

Tokenization is different from encryption. In encryption, data is scrambled using the key, whereas, in tokenization, data is replaced with the token for the duration of the specific use. In encryption, the keys are required on either end for encryption and decryption, whereas in tokenization, tokens are used everywhere to complete the transaction instead of actual data, with or without any need for encryption or decryption.

In this whitepaper, you'll discover:

Quantum Random Number Generator for Tokenization Needs

Tokens are random numbers that are used to mask the personally identifiable information (PII), be it Bank Account Details, Credit/Debit card numbers, PAN / AADHAR data, credentials (pins, passwords) and the like by replacing them with randomly generate substitutes at the time of use; Tokens are thus used for completing the transaction and themselves do not have any intrinsic value except when mapped to the PII that is stored.

Tokenization is different from encryption. In encryption, data is scrambled using the key, whereas, in tokenization, data is replaced with the token for the duration of the specific use. In encryption, the keys are required on either end for encryption and decryption, whereas in tokenization, tokens are used everywhere to complete the transaction instead of actual data, with or without any need for encryption or decryption.

In this whitepaper, you'll discover:

Get insights into QRNG for Tokenization
Needs

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kpmg-qnu-labs-report-on-quantum-cryptography-2021

WHITEPAPER

To qubit or not to qubit - is that
the question?

A point of view on the world of quantum cryptography and life in a post quantum world

To qubit or not to qubit - is that the question?

In this report, we focus mainly on why, what, how of quantum cryptography and the applications in today’s digital world. We also throw our expert views on insufficient randomness, weak key generation, insecure data-in-transit, non-availability of cryptoagility for digital transformation and much more.

This report aims to provide a good starting point to understand the problem with respect to key management and the steps organizations must take to start their journey to improve their security paradigm.

In this whitepaper, you'll discover:

- Introduction to Quantum Cryptography and Quantum Computing

- Difference between Classical RNG and QRNG

- Working of Entropy as a Service (EaaS)

- Working of Quantum Key Distribution and Key Management

- Key Challenges in Quantum Cryptography and More

Get insights into To qubit or not to qubit
- is that the question?

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Blog

Quantum Vaccination Program for Enterprises

Quantum Vaccination Program For Enterprises

Quantum Vaccination Program For Enterprises

Worrisome Situation: World Is Facing Not One But Two Pandemics - The Next Global Crisis: “A Cyber Security Pandemic"

Sunil Gupta   |   May 13, 2021

The whole world is reeling from one of the worst pandemics ever seen. Health systems of most countries are under stress, and in a few countries have crumbled from the sheer size of the population infected by a fast-spreading disease. People with low immunity and comorbidities are the worst impacted. The second wave of Covid has taken the world by surprise and the countries which were not prepared for the second, worst surge have been caught off guard and are struggling to contain and manage the disease.

This pandemic will be remembered as a uniquely disruptive period in our lives — but not just as a global health crisis. Online life has digitally transformed, with exponential change at home and work via cyberspace. However, the negative cybersecurity impacts of these online changes have led many experts to summarize the combined events of this year as a growing “cyber pandemic”. As per a govt. report, cyber-attacks amidst this pandemic rose by almost 300% in India. Recently an American cyber intelligence company hinted at a suspected China-linked cyber operation that was focused on India’s electricity grid and other critical infrastructure. The above data highlights that hackers have become more active in the last 12 months, taking advantage of the distraction and confusion all around due to the pandemic. Hackers thrive on such situations to carry out cyber-attacks.

A parallel can be drawn between this health pandemic and the cyber pandemic (CP). CP is widespread across geographies, countries, industry verticals and size of the enterprises. Large defense organizations, cloud service providers, telecom utility providers, critical infrastructures, healthcare enterprises, payment gateways, and financial institutions are suffering from CP. Over 1,000 CXOs were asked about the effects of Covid-19 on enterprise and government organizations in a recent global study done by Tanium and 90 percent of executives surveyed experienced an increase in cyberattacks due to the pandemic.

The recent colonial pipeline ransomware attack and subsequent shutdown has been sending shockwaves through the United States.Unfortunately, majority of the discourse surrounding this cyber incident seems to miss the point: cyberattacks, especially those against our increasingly exposed critical infrastructure, are now part of our digital reality. The U.S. was fortunate that the ransomware intruders did not seek to cause physical destruction by bridging over from the IT systems into the pipeline’s OT systems. Simply put, the colonial pipeline hack could have been far worse than a nuisance to fuel supply chains and impact on consumers wallets.

Hope: “Prevention Is Better Than Cure”

The only viable and effective answer today to save the life of people is mass vaccination. Besides the best practices of improving one’s general health, the only solution available to people is to build sufficient antibodies to fight the disease. This may not protect people from getting infected with Covid-19 and its multiple strains but will ensure that the damage is minimal and restricted, and the recovery is fast. Looking at the havoc created by the pandemic, pharma companies have created vaccines in a record time to deal with the pandemic. Tough times call for desperate measures and heroic efforts.

There was an initial hesitation in people about the efficacy and side effects of the vaccines, some of which are yet to complete trial phases. But people have realized that the risk to life from Covid is far more than the perceived risk from the vaccines. Thus the initial vaccine hesitancy has been overcome and populace is queuing up for inoculation.

CP is different and more difficult to address compared to health pandemic as the attack vectors in CP are far more and take many different forms, ranging from malware and ransomware to man-in-the-middle attacks, compromised credentials, and phishing. Therefore, the solution to address CP has to be easy to embrace, extremely fast in action and should address current and future threats.

QNu Labs, an indigenous quantum security start-up from Bangalore had anticipated a data apocalypse type of situation happening in the near future. It therefore started building next gen data security products in 2016 using bleeding edge technology based on quantum physics. QNu’s quantum-based cryptographic systems use quantum random number generators to produce quantum encryption keys and uses superposition properties of photons to generate identical symmetric keys at both ends of the communication link. Any unauthorized intrusion into the communication immediately severs the quantum channel—it becomes known instantly that there has been an eavesdropping attack.

Solution: Cyber Security Pandemic Needs Quantum Vaccination Drive!!

Given the dire situation of the cyber pandemic, which is only increasing in size, frequency and impact day by day, it is prudent and the need of the hour to implement the products and solutions based on this latest quantum technology. This technology may be new but it has gone through successful trials and implementation worldwide and, like the Covid vaccines, is ready for mass deployment.

It is time for quantum vaccination of enterprises to protect and minimize the impact from various attack vectors. Quvaxin from QNu consists of two solutions. The first solution (Tropos/Qosmos) upgrades the conventional software-based entropy source to quantum ready entropy source for generating encryption keys and digital certificates. The first jab will ensure instantaneously that the keys and digital certificates have no patterns or corelations of any kind which can be exploited by hackers. The second solution (Armos) takes the ‘data security in transit’ to the level of unconditional security so that no man in the middle can ever get an access to encryption keys, even on an unsecure network.

The process of giving Quvaxin is very simple - easy to use APIs, no disruption in the ongoing business and immediate benefits.

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whitepaper

Practical Solution for Secure Network in a Quantum Computing Era

WHITEPAPER

Practical Solution For Secure Network in
a Quantum Computing Era

Encryption algorithms prevalent today should be revisited from the perspective of threat from a quantum computer

Practical Solution For Secure Network In A Quantum Computing Era

Data security in a network is a major concern in quantum era. One of the major challenges faced by quantum technology is to integrate itself seamlessly into present cryptographic infrastructure. The encryption algorithms prevalent today should be revisited from the perspective of threat from a quantum computer. In this paper, we demonstrate a practical demonstration and integration of a Differential Phase Shift Quantum Key Distribution (DPS QKD) protocol with commercial router cum encryptor.

We have validated the randomness of the final secure keys generated from QKD in NIST test suite and it has passed all the 15 tests. The QKD system was integrated with a commercial router cum encryptor and we have successfully performed data transmission from a source router to a destination router.

In this whitepaper, you'll discover:

- QKD Protocols

- Experimental Setup

- Key Generation in QKD Network

- Quantum key Transportation Between End Applications

- Practical Demonstration for Point to Point QKD and More

Get insights into Practical Solution For Secure Network in a Quantum Computing Era

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Blog

What’s lurking in the Cloud?

What’s Lurking In The Cloud?

What’s Lurking In The Cloud?

Ramesh Srinivasan, May 12,2021

The lock down has clearly increased workloads to remote, cloud and hybrid environments. The cyber-attacks have just been growing steadily and relentlessly. New victims every day and by the time the impact is understood there is a new ransomware, a new victim impacting organizations across the world. It looks like the hackers are far ahead in the game.

The four popular brothers -phishing, malware, ransomwares, and DDOS seem to be doing just fine and growing well. While the work has moved to home, by and large organizations have really not checked if the employees work in a safe environment, not physically but from network security, I have not heard of anything other than a VPN and in some cases everything is left to “it is someone else’s problem to solve “.

Let’s take the last few big take downs- Solar Winds, FireEye, Software AG, Paytm, easyJet, Marriot all have been victims, these are companies with skilled people and mature environments. So it’s really not the small business that is being attacked.

The hacker world has its own hall of fame, anything small is not going to get any attention in that world and more audacious the attack better the score. These are coveted spots you earn which keep the methods and game interesting by outdoing each other, new players emerge and join the club. Earlier we had Babuk ransomware which attacked Houston Rockets, a telecom company and Govt dept. all in a single month.

The lights on approach of folks manning the security networks, the talent gap and no updated policies are just adding to the vulnerabilities.

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Categories
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The Future of Secure Encryption: Satellite Quantum Key Distribution

The Future Of Secure Encryption: Satellite Quantum Key Distribution

The Future Of Secure Encryption: Satellite Quantum Key Distribution

Deepika Aggarwal, May 08, 2021

Companies and governments around the world are in a race to build the first usable quantum computer. The technology promises to make some kinds of computing problems much, much easier to solve than with today’s classical computers, but it also poses a significant threat to the integrity of encrypted data.

A large-scale quantum computer would, for example, be capable of solving the prime-number factorization problem exponentially faster than classical computers. For authentication and data transmission, the widely used asymmetric encryption relies on the difficulty of solving just such mathematical problems. The arrival of effective quantum computers would thus lead to a fatal breakdown of the current security infrastructure.

Alternate “quantum-proof” methods of encryption are therefore required. Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) is one approach that exploits the fundamental laws of physics rather than specific mathematical assumptions. It is resistant to all known computational attacks, including those from future quantum computers.

The Need For Satellite Based Quantum Key Distribution

Ground-based QKD systems are commercially available today, but the range of communication of the current systems has been limited to a few hundred kilometers due to atmospheric losses or in-fiber attenuations. These limitations make purely ground-based systems impractical for a global distribution network.

Long-distance communication is far more important in meeting the security threat posed by quantum computers, for government, military, as well as business infrastructure. Interconnecting local QKD networks over international distances faces a huge technological hurdle: amplification or simple reception and retransmission of quantum states alters their properties and is thus fundamentally incompatible with QKD.

While “quantum repeater” might seem to be a solution, which allows single light particles to be stored, re-sent and manipulated without altering their state, but the related technology is still immature for practical implementations. Another solution, links with many “trusted relays”, can extend these distances from across a typical metropolitan area to intercity and even intercontinental distances. However, relays pose security risks.

Satellite based QKD systems offer the best approach for establishing a global-scale quantum network by using satellites that distribute secure keys to ground stations via free-space optical links.

The technology facilitates low photon loss and negligible signal disturbance (decoherence) in the empty out space. Propagation losses, which scale exponentially in fiber, scale only quadratically in free space and hence extend the range of quantum communication without compromising its security.

A satellite-based QKD system will ensure security over national and international distances, at a cost, much lower compared to ground-based fiber infrastructure for quantum-communications. By ensuring the secure distribution of cryptographic keys over globe-spanning distances, this space-based technology delivers ultra-secure, long-range communications capability at a level that cannot be achieved with ground-based fiber infrastructure.

Thus, a global QKD network of ground stations and satellites, using laser light to send secure secret keys, provides a great platform for securely connecting the world.

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Quantum Internet: A Leap Forward

Quantum Internet: A Leap Forward​

Quantum Internet: A Leap Forward

Anuj Sethia, May 08, 2021

On Oct. 29, 1969, a set of electrical signals emerged from the University of California, Los Angeles and traveled to one at the Stanford Research Institute in Palo Alto. This marked the inception of a new era for humanity, as this was the first data ever transmitted over Arpanet, the precursor of the internet. Unquestionably, the internet has had a revolutionary impact on our society.

On similar lines, a quantum internet's vision is to provide fundamentally new technologies by enabling quantum communication between any two points on Earth. Such a quantum internet will work in synergy with the "classical" internet that we have today to connect quantum information processors to achieve unparalleled capabilities that are impossible using only classical information.

As with any emerging technology, it is hard to predict all the quantum internet capabilities. The best-known application of a quantum internet today is quantum key distribution (QKD), enabling two remote network nodes to establish an encryption key. However, a quantum internet has many other applications with advantages that are unattainable with the present internet. More applications include secure access to remote quantum computers and more accurate clock synchronization. Moving ahead, more applications are likely to be discovered in the next decade.

A quantum internet requires spearheading three quantum hardware elements: quantum channel, quantum repeaters and quantum processors. Quantum channel supports the transmission of qubits similar to standard telecom fibers. Since they are inherently lossy, we require quantum repeaters to reach longer distances, thus scaling both entanglement and key distribution capabilities. The final element is the end nodes, i.e., the quantum processors connected to the quantum internet.

The stages of development toward a full-blown quantum internet can be identified as:
  • Trusted repeater network: A network with at least two end nodes using QKD to exchange encryption keys.
  • Prepare and measure: Enabling end-to-end QKD without the need to trust intermediary repeater.
  • Entanglement generation: Creation of quantum entanglement with a deterministic nature along with local measurements.
  • Quantum memory: This stage involves having a quantum memory with local control at end nodes.
  • Qubit with fault tolerance: The ability to perform local operations fault tolerance.
  • Quantum Computing: The final stage consists of quantum computers that can arbitrarily exchange quantum communication.

Based upon this vision for the quantum network, the current experimental status of long-distance quantum networks is at the lowest stage, i.e., trusted repeater networks. Building and scaling quantum networks is a challenging endeavor, requiring sustained and concerted efforts in physics, computer science, and engineering to succeed. Although it is hard to predict the exact components of a future quantum internet, we will likely see the first multimode quantum networks' birth in the next few years. This development would bring the exciting opportunity to test the ideas and functionalities that so far only exist on paper and are potential components of a future large-scale quantum internet.

Reference Link:

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